Forging is a metal fabrication technique used to shape metal through compressive forces like hammering, pressing, or rolling. The force is applied to the metal to give it a desired form or shape. Today, forging is performed using forging presses or hammering tools powered by electricity, hydraulics, or compressed air. Materials that are used for forging are steel alloy, carbon steel, micro-alloy steel, aluminum, stainless steel, and titanium.
The concept behind forging is that metal is deformed to give it a desired geometric shape having higher strength and fatigue resistance. The parts produced with the forging process have sound mechanical properties. Forging is an economical process that can produce parts in bulk amounts and the process is economically sound. Forge Well is a leading forging company in Faridabad, Haryana that produces high-quality metal parts in diverse sizes, shapes, finishes, and materials. The company is India’s leading name in producing world-class forged products in carbon, alloy, and stainless steel.
What is the difference between forging and casting?
- Forging and casting are the two different processes commonly used in India through which parts are manufactured. Forging is the process that uses dies, pressure, and temperature to give a desired shape to a piece of metal, whereas casting is the process in which metal is heated above its melting temperature and poured into a mold to solidify.
- Casting is used to produce a wide range of spare parts and components that are too large, intricate, or difficult to produce with the forging process. Forging can be used to produce parts of up to 50 kg but the energy required to forge larger parts makes it difficult to produce and hence casting process turns out to be the better alternative.
- Forged parts are stronger and more reliable compared to casting because forging alters the grain flow of the metal, conforming to the shape of the part produced and having a high level of material predictability whereas parts made with casting are more susceptible to breakage.
- Forging is ideally not recommended for parts having highly complex geometries whereas casting can adhere to high tolerances.
- Forging can produce parts that are limited in terms of size and thickness whereas casting can produce parts in a wide range of sizes.
Benefit of Forging
Forging for many years has been an integral part of the metal-forming industry because of its multifarious benefits. This process is used to produce strong, durable, and reliable parts for machinery, engines, and technical equipment that provide optimum performance in any condition. Today, in India a large number of manufacturers and producers rely on forging to produce parts that are used in the automotive sector, aerospace, and defense. The forged parts are known for durability and high performance. Major benefits of forging include:
- Forging eliminates surface porosity along with defects and voids.
- Forging produces parts with superior structural integrity and mechanical strength.
- It produces parts that are incredibly strong and ductile
- The forging process is generally less expensive because of fewer requirements of scrap material and less intensive labor requirements.
Characteristics of the Forging Process
Forging is the oldest and most vital metallurgical procedure that was first introduced around 4000 B.C. Earlier it was used to manufacture utensils, jewelry, and coins by hammering metal with stone tools. Today stone tools have been replaced with high-powered hammers and mechanical presses steel dies have been replaced with an anvil.
The forged parts have more directional properties of strength and ductility because metals are pre-worked prior to the forging process which results in proper grain flow and directional properties. Hence parts made with forging have superior structural integrity and mechanical strength.
Resistance to Corrosion and Fatigue
The forging process maintains the metal grain flow lines that generally get cut in other metal fabricating methods that expose ends and lead to fatigue and susceptibility to corrosion. Thus with grain flow maintained, forged parts have better fatigue and corrosion resistance.
Parts of Varying Thickness
The forging process is used to produce parts of varying thicknesses because of the higher strength-to-weight ratio. This process can be used to mass-produce parts of varying thicknesses which saves time and production costs.
Top forging companies in India make use of the forging process to quickly and economically produce custom-designed parts using a wide variety of materials and design requirements. The forging process allows producing parts of unusual shapes and configurations with improved precision.
The parts made with the forging process are high in strength and highly durable because the metal in this process is able to retain its grain structure and alignment. Contaminants from the metals are removed through preprocessing and pre-working of the metals that damage or harm the metal’s strength.
What are the different types of forging?
Forging is a process in which a workpiece is plastically deformed either by applying compression force or placing the workpiece between two dies. The forging process can be performed in diverse temperatures like hot, cold, warm, and isothermal. It is the most vital metal-forming process in iron and steel manufacturing. The two major types of forging include:
Hot forging is the process in which metal is heated above its recrystallization temperature, which is the temperature at which the new grains are formed in the metal. Extreme heat is essential to avoid strain hardening of the metal during deformation, and it also decreases yield strength and improves ductility. The forging temperature varies depending on the type of metal that is used to produce parts. It is a metal shaping process in which a malleable metal part is given a predetermined shape by hammering, upsetting, pressing, and the workpiece is heated up to about 75% of its melting temperature. The process initiates with the heating of metal to its plastic deformation temperature and then forged between dies in the desired size and shape.
Cold forging is a process carried out at room temperature in which the workpiece is placed between two dies and the dies are hammered until it achieves the desired shape. Cold forging is a more economical process because the parts made through this process don’t require finishing at all. Parts made with this process have uniformity, a better surface finish, and increased versatility. It is an efficient and economical process that is used for the production of high volumes of parts at low cost and the parts produced are stronger and of better quality. Cold forging is a low-cost procedure because of the reduction in labor costs and the need for secondary processing. Parts are rapidly produced at a high rate that lowers per unit cost.
What are the different forging processes?
The metal forging industry in India is projected to grow from USD 4.32 billion in 2022 to USD 8.80 billion by 2029. Forging is a process of metal forming that has witnessed the integration of innovative techniques and is responsible for producing high-quality metal parts of different shapes, and sizes of increased material strength. Besides hot and cold forging processes, there are some other forging processes too that are used by the leading forging company in India. Some of the other popular forging processes include:
Drop forging is a process in which a hammer is dropped onto the metal to mold it into the die shape. In drop forging a workpiece is placed into a die and then hammered till it takes the shape of the die. The drop forging process is excessively used in automobile industries, aerospace, railroad equipment manufacturing, engine manufacturing industries, etc. Drop forging is of two types, open-die, and closed-die forging.
It is a forging method in which a metal piece is given a pre-defined shape by applying pressure gradually on a die holding the metal. The pressure is applied either by a hydraulic press or a drop hammer. It is the most commonly used as the first shaping process of large ingots to avoid any internal voids and make the bar suitable for further forging. After press forging, the metal workpiece is reheated up to a temperature where it is ready for a hammer or dies forging. There is no limit to the size of the parts that can be created through this process.
It is a forging process that is usually used to increase the length of wires or rods, by placing the heated bars between two cylindrical rolls with grooves. The grooves rotate and apply progressive pressure to shape the metal. Parts produced using the roll forging process have better mechanical properties compared to parts produced from other forging processes. This forging process is used to produce parts for the automotive industry and to produce hand tools and knives.
It is a type of forging process that plastically deforms metal under high pressure into components of varying sizes of great strength. This forging process is ideally used for larger shapes in which only one part has to be forged. The best thing about this forging process is that it produces products at an increasing rate of up to 4500 parts per hour with complete automation. Besides, there is no wastage in this process.
It is a closed-die forging process in which both the dies and the workpiece are heated at the same temperature to ensure that metal forming happens without loss of temperature in the workpiece. This forging process is preferred for producing engineered parts like jet engines and other aerospace components. The best thing about this forging process is that it requires lower machining and hence has lower scrap rates and the part is highly reproducible.
What kind of equipment is used for forging?
India is a big market for forged products and hence several biggest and heavy forging companies in Faridabad and other areas of Delhi-NCR are operating to cater to the growing demand. These companies make use of diverse equipment to carry out the forging process. However, the most popular equipment used for forging is the anvil and the hammer. Some of the commonly used equipment in forging include:
It comprises of iron or steel body, an iron bottom, a chimney, and a blower and is used for heating metal pieces.
It is a large metal slab that is used to perform different operations like flatting metal surfaces and obtaining shapes using the hammer.
It is a tool made of high petroleum steel with a tapered cutting edge on one end and is used for cutting and chipping out metal
It is available in different designs to provide adequate gripping and is used to transport the heated metal to the anvil
This tool helps to create grooves in the forging process and it also stretches the metal.
Why is Forgewell Limited the best forging company in Faridabad, India?
Founded in 1978, Forgewell Limited is India’s leading forging company based in Faridabad that has been providing forged products for over four decades. A family-managed company with a medium size structure is a leading name in the forging industry, producing excellent quality forged products. We have production lines with drop hammers, ring rolling with heat treatment, and in-house CNC/VMC machining and deep hole gun drilling. More than 95% of sales are made to Original Equipment Manufacturers & Tier-1 Automotive customers. Some of our noteworthy features include:
- Committed to rigorous quality standards
- Reduce machining time
- Delivering a high level of innovation to customers
- Gain extensive trust and support of esteemed clients
- Producing a wide array of forged products for the automotive industry