Glaucoma is an eye problem, common in older adults, that causes damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve is responsible for sending visual information from the eye to the brain and is essential for good vision. Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to the eye’s optic nerve due to high pressure in the eye. This happens because fluids build up in the eye resulting in increased pressure in the eye called intraocular pressure.
If the damage to the optic nerve worsens, glaucoma may even cause permanent blindness or vision loss within a few years. It is one of the leading causes of blindness in people over the age of 60 years, as most glaucoma patients have no early symptoms of the disease. However, blindness from glaucoma can be prevented with early treatment.
Glaucoma is supposed to run in families though it occurs in old age only. Therefore, people who are likely to have this eye disease should opt for the best glaucoma treatment in Delhi’s prominent eye hospital, AKIO. Visiting the best eye hospital in Delhi regularly will help people to diagnose and treat glaucoma before having its long-term implications.
Causes of Glaucoma
The eyes continually make aqueous humor and the amount of fluid in the eyes should be kept in check. This happens by draining out the same amount of aqueous fluid that flows into the eyes through the drainage angle. This process maintains the eye pressure and keeps it stable but if the drainage angle fails to do so then fluid builds up in the eye causing pressure inside the eye to rise. The optic nerve gets damaged due to the increase of pressure inside the eye.
The optic nerve is like an electric cable made of millions of tiny nerve fibers. When these nerve fibers die people develop blind spots in their vision, which easily do not get noticed until most optic nerve fibers die. If all the nerve fibers die then people will become blind. It is vital to know that loss of vision can’t be brought back so people having glaucoma should strictly follow their treatment plan and should regularly go for eye exams at the best eye hospital in Delhi to ensure their eye health.
Some less common causes of glaucoma include:
- Chemical injury to the eye
- Severe eye infection
- Blocked eye blood vessels
- Inflammatory conditions
Types of Glaucoma
There are different types of glaucoma however, the two main types of glaucoma are:
Open-angle Glaucoma: This is the most common type of glaucoma that affects an extremely large number of people. This glaucoma occurs on the buildup of tiny deposits in the eye’s drainage canals that slowly block them. The drainage canal may seem to be open and functioning normally but with time, the tiny deposits lead to fluid buildup that put pressure on the optic nerve. This glaucoma often gets unnoticed for years because people don’t experience any symptoms.
Angle-closure Glaucoma: It is also called acute, chronic angle-closure or narrow-angle glaucoma is more common in Asia. This glaucoma occurs when the angle between the iris and cornea becomes too narrow due to which the drainage canals get blocked. This also prevents aqueous fluid from coming out from the eye which leads to increased eye pressure. People suffering from this type of glaucoma require immediate medical attention and hence they should quickly pay a visit to the best eye hospital in Delhi to receive the best glaucoma treatment.
Some less-common types of glaucoma include:
Secondary Glaucoma: This type of glaucoma occurs due to other health conditions like cataracts or diabetes. People suffering from such health problems may experience increased pressure in the eye, thereby leading to glaucoma.
Normal-Tension Glaucoma:This type of glaucoma occurs when people develop blind spots in their vision or their optic nerve gets damaged even when their eye pressure is normal. One in three people suffers from optic nerve damage even when their eye pressure is normal. It is also called normal pressure or low tension glaucoma and is common among Asians. Even doctors are not sure what causes this type of glaucoma.
Congenital:Glaucoma cases are also identified in some newborn babies at the time of birth. The drainage canals of these babies don’t form properly during fetal development and this may be noticed by the healthcare provider. The symptoms of this glaucoma may also come to notice during childhood. It is also called infantile or pediatric glaucoma.
Symptoms of Glaucoma
The glaucoma symptoms usually depend on the type of glaucoma from which people are suffering:
People suffering from open-angle glaucoma do not experience any symptoms in the early stages but gradually they may experience symptoms like
- Patchy blind spots in the side or peripheral vision
- Difficulty in seeing in central vision
Angle-closure glaucoma has severe symptoms that may arise suddenly and need immediate medical attention. Some of its common symptoms include:
- Severe headache and eye pain
- Nausea and vomiting
- Blurred or low vision
- Halos or colored rings around lights
- Red eyes
There is no symptom during the early stages of normal-tension glaucoma but symptoms arise during the later stages. Some of its symptoms include:
- Blurred or low vision
- Loss of side vision
- Congenital glaucoma
- Some common symptoms of congenital glaucoma include:
- A cloudy or dull eye
- Blurred vision
- Increased blinking
- Tears in eye
- Nearsightedness that may even get worse
Types of Glaucoma Surgery
Different types of surgeries can be performed for glaucoma treatment depending upon the type and stage of glaucoma. The common types of glaucoma surgery are discussed below:
Trabeculectomy: This type of surgery is performed to treat open-angle glaucoma. It is performed by creating a tiny opening in the top part of the eye i.e. under the eyelid that is not visible to anyone. The opening is made to drain out extra fluid from the eye which will result in lowering the pressure in the eye. This surgery takes less than an hour and is performed by giving patients numbing medicine.
Glaucoma implant surgery: This surgery is effective in treating different types of glaucoma and usually takes between 1-2 hours. In this surgery, a tiny tube or shunt is implanted onto the white part of the eye that helps in draining extra fluid from the eye that lowers the pressure of the eye. Patients are operated on by providing them with numbing medicine and are allowed to go home on the same day.
Minimally Invasive glaucoma surgery: This is the latest surgical procedure performed in patients suffering from mild glaucoma. This surgical method is recently developed to easily and safely treat patients compared to conventional surgery. This surgery is performed using microsurgical instruments and devices creating smaller incisions and by minimal manipulation of the eye tissues that lowers the complications.
Precautions to take after Glaucoma Surgery
People who underwent glaucoma surgery have to take some precautions to heal quickly and avoid any complications.
- Wear the eye bandage or eye patch as directed by the doctor
- Use the prescribed eye drops that prevent infection and inflammation
- Avoid activities like swimming to prevent exposure of the eye to water
- Follow the doctor’s instructions for washing the face and bathing
- Avoid strenuous activities
- Refrain from driving and lifting heavy objects
Why choose theakio.com for the Glaucoma Treatment in Delhi?
Glaucoma is a serious eye condition that needs immediate treatment to prevent vision loss or blindness. People suffering from glaucoma should get in touch with the best eye hospital in Delhi, AKIO to seek the best glaucoma treatment. Atul Kumar Institute of Ophthalmology or AKIO is a reputed eye clinic in Delhi offering best-in-class glaucoma treatment along with several other eye problems. Served by India’s best and most acknowledged eye surgeons, this eye clinic is highly trusted for receiving complete eye care at an affordable price. Some of the prominent reasons behind choosing this eye clinic include:
- Globally recognized eye surgeons and doctors
- Treating patients with love and care
- Served by highly experienced surgeons and doctors
- AKIO is setup by Padmashree and BC Roy Awardee, Atul Kumar.